jm2.nu | Übersetzungen für 'tongue' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „slip of the tongue“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: That $ was a slip of the tongue. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "tongue" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
Orthographically similar words tongued. Aus dem Umfeld der Suche offshoot , headland , apophysis , languet. Forum discussions containing the search term click one's tongue - mit der Zunge schnalzen Last post 19 Nov 11, Last post 11 Aug 05, Ferocactus latispinus Last post 20 May 14, But, the mean… 3 Replies More.
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Im Web und als APP. Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.
As of August [update] , it is in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.
The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.
The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.
Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur. It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.
The most recent edition is the 42nd from Since the 39th edition from the orthography of the ÖWB was adjusted to the German spelling reform of The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol.
This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en German verbs are indicated by a hyphen "-" after their stems.
Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has three vowels with Umlaut , namely ä , ö and ü , as well as the eszett or scharfes s sharp s: The longest German word that has been published is Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft made of 79 characters.
Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.
In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner". Umlaut vowels ä, ö, ü are commonly transcribed with ae, oe, and ue if the umlauts are not available on the keyboard or other medium used.
Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.
German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available because they are a makeshift, not proper spelling.
In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e.
There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence. Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e.
Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.
As an example in a telephone book Ärzte occurs after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer because Ä is replaced by Ae. In a dictionary Ärzte comes after Arzt , but in some dictionaries Ärzte and all other words starting with Ä may occur after all words starting with A.
Until the early 20th century, German was mostly printed in blackletter typefaces mostly in Fraktur , but also in Schwabacher and written in corresponding handwriting for example Kurrent and Sütterlin.
These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.
The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.
The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.
Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.
The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute.
After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.
In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in , on the other hand, many of the old comma rules were again put in force.
Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.
In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.
Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.
In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany Hessen , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region.
German vowels can form the following digraphs in writing and diphthongs in pronunciation ; note that the pronunciation of some of them ei, äu, eu is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters:.
With approximately 25 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.
The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th. The th sounds, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and the 10th centuries.
Likewise, the gh in Germanic English words, pronounced in several different ways in modern English as an f , or not at all , can often be linked to German ch: The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.
Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.
Thirteen German-speaking people have won the Nobel Prize in literature: English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from, often, the elimination of umlauts and not capitalizing nouns:.
The government-backed Goethe-Institut  named after the famous German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.
This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language.
The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , which was founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world.
The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries. Its founder, statistics professor Dr. Walter Krämer, has remained chairperson of the association from its beginnings.
The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle is the equivalent of the British BBC World Service and provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe.
Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website to learn German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Grammatical gender in German. German orthography and German braille. Listen to a German speaker recite the alphabet in German. German orthography reform of High German consonant shift.
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Retrieved 24 July Europeans and their languages" PDF report. Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 11 October Auflage, Neumünster , S.
Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 28 September Retrieved August 6, Old English and its closest relatives: An Anthology of German Literature.
Zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache. A history of the German language: University of Washington Press. A history of German: Geschichte der deutschen Sprache.
The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Eerdmans; Brill, —, 1: A history of the German language. University of California Libraries.
The German Nation and Martin Luther. Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde an der österreichischen Mittelschulen. The "Duden" and its History".
Die Rolle der II. Orthographischen Konferenz in der Geschichte der deutschen Rechtschreibung. Deutsche Bühnenaussprache zuletzt als: Reine und gemässigte Hochlautung mit Aussprachewörterbuch.
Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 18 July Statista, The Statistics Portal.
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Archived from the original PDF on 24 June Retrieved 23 June Markedness and salience in language contact and second-language acquisition: Founding Provisions South African Government".
Retrieved 15 March German Dialects map ". Volume 2, Reference Survey" 1st ed. Retrieved 12 June Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 17 October Inter- und übernationale Beziehungen".
Deutsche Sprachgeschichte vom Spätmittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. Retrieved 21 August Walter de Gruyter, Berlin The styloglossus arises from the styloid process of the temporal bone and draws the sides of the tongue up to create a trough for swallowing.
The palatoglossus arises from the palatine aponeurosis , and depresses the soft palate , moves the palatoglossal fold towards the midline, and elevates the back of the tongue during swallowing.
Four paired intrinsic muscles of the tongue originate and insert within the tongue, running along its length. They are the superior longitudinal muscle , the inferior longitudinal muscle , the vertical muscle , and the transverse muscle.
These muscles alter the shape of the tongue by lengthening and shortening it, curling and uncurling its apex and edges as in tongue rolling , and flattening and rounding its surface.
This provides shape and helps facilitate speech, swallowing, and eating. The superior longitudinal muscle runs along the upper surface of the tongue under the mucous membrane, and elevates, assists in retraction of, or deviates the tip of the tongue.
It originates near the epiglottis , at the hyoid bone , from the median fibrous septum. The inferior longitudinal muscle lines the sides of the tongue, and is joined to the styloglossus muscle.
The vertical muscle is located in the middle of the tongue, and joins the superior and inferior longitudinal muscles.
The transverse muscle divides the tongue at the middle, and is attached to the mucous membranes that run along the sides. The tongue receives its blood supply primarily from the lingual artery , a branch of the external carotid artery.
The lingual veins , drain into the internal jugular vein. The floor of the mouth also receives its blood supply from the lingual artery.
An area in the neck sometimes called the Pirogov triangle is formed by the intermediate tendon of the digastric muscle , the posterior border of the mylohyoid muscle , and the hypoglossal nerve.
Innervation of the tongue consists of motor fibers, special sensory fibers for taste, and general sensory fibers for sensation.
Innervation of taste and sensation is different for the anterior and posterior part of the tongue because they are derived from different embryological structures pharyngeal arch 1 and pharyngeal arches 3 and 4, respectively.
The upper surface of the tongue is covered in masticatory mucosa a type of oral mucosa which is of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Embedded in this are numerous papillae that house the taste buds and their taste receptors. The tongue can also divide itself in dorsal and ventral surface.
The dorsal surface is a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium which is characterized by numerous mucosal projections called papillae.
The ventral surface is stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium which is smooth. The tongue begins to develop in the fourth week of embryogenesis from a median swelling, the median tongue bud known as the tuberculum impar , of the first pharyngeal arch.
In the fifth week a pair of lateral swellings, the lateral lingual swellings distal tongue buds one on the right side and one on the left, form on the first pharyngeal arch.
These lingual swellings quickly expand and cover the tuberculum impar and continue to develop through prenatal development. They form the anterior part of the tongue that makes up two thirds of the length of the tongue.
The line of their fusion is marked by the median sulcus. In the fourth week a swelling appears from the second pharyngeal arch , in the midline, called the copula.
During the fifth and sixth weeks the copula is overgrown by a swelling from the third and fourth arches mainly from the third arch called the hypopharyngeal eminence , and this develops into the posterior part of the tongue the other third.
The hypopharyngeal eminence develops mainly by the growth of endoderm from the third pharyngeal arch. The boundary between the two parts of the tongue, the anterior from the first arch and the posterior from the third arch is marked by the terminal sulcus.
At the tip of the terminal sulcus is the foramen caecum , which is the point where the embryological thyroid begins to descend.
Chemicals that stimulate taste receptor cells are known as tastants. Once a tastant is dissolved in saliva , it can make contact with the plasma membrane of the gustatory hairs, which are the sites of taste transduction.
The tongue is equipped with many taste buds on its dorsal surface, and each taste bud is equipped with taste receptor cells that can sense particular classes of tastes.
Distinct types of taste receptor cells respectively detect substances that are sweet, bitter, salty, sour, spicy, or taste of umami.
The tongue is an important accessory organ in the digestive system. The tongue is used for crushing food against the hard palate, during mastication and manipulation of food for softening prior to swallowing.
Consequently, the tongue can grind against the hard palate without being itself damaged or irritated. The intrinsic muscles of the tongue enable the shaping of the tongue which facilitates speech.
The tongue plays a role in physical intimacy and sexuality. The tongue is part of the erogenous zone of the mouth and can be used in intimate contact, as in the French kiss and in oral sex.
A congenital disorder of the tongue is that of ankyloglossia also known as tongue-tie. The tongue is tied to the floor of the mouth by a very short and thickened frenulum and this affects speech, eating, and swallowing.
The tongue is prone to several pathologies including glossitis and other inflammations such as geographic tongue , and median rhomboid glossitis ; burning mouth syndrome , oral hairy leukoplakia , oral candidiasis thrush and black hairy tongue.
There are several types of oral cancer that mainly affect the tongue. Mostly these are squamous cell carcinomas. Food debris, desquamated epithelial cells and bacteria often form a visible tongue coating.
The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is an ideal location for the administration of certain medications into the body. The oral mucosa is very thin underneath the tongue, and is underlain by a plexus of veins.
The sublingual route takes advantage of the highly vascular quality of the oral cavity, and allows for the speedy application of medication into the cardiovascular system, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.
This is the only convenient and efficacious route of administration apart from Intravenous therapy of nitroglycerin to a patient suffering chest pain from angina pectoris.
The tongue evolved with the amphibians from the same structures that form fins in fish. As a consequence most vertebrate animals - amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals - have tongues.
In mammals such as dogs and cats , the tongue is often used to clean the fur and body by licking. The tongues of these species have a very rough texture which allows them to remove oils and parasites.
Some dogs have a tendency to consistently lick a part of their foreleg which can result in a skin condition known as a lick granuloma.
A dog's tongue also acts as a heat regulator. As a dog increases its exercise the tongue will increase in size due to greater blood flow. The tongue hangs out of the dog's mouth and the moisture on the tongue will work to cool the bloodflow.